According to the United Nations Development Programmethe latter is found more often to be the cause of countries or regions experiencing water scarcity, as most countries or regions have enough water to meet household, industrial, agricultural, and environmental needs, but lack the means to provide it in an accessible manner. It also occurs where water seems abundant but where resources are over-committed, such as when there is over development of hydraulic infrastructure for irrigation. Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental degradation and declining groundwater as well as other forms of exploitation or overuse. Economic water scarcity includes a lack of infrastructure, causing the people without reliable access to water to have to travel long distances to fetch water, that is often contaminated from rivers for domestic and agricultural uses.
Image by Ameto Akpe. Next to air, water is no doubt the most essential element to human life as the body cannot usually survive longer than several days without. Not only is water essential to every single cell and organ in the body, it makes up two-thirds of the weight of the human body.
Given its importance, the need to ensure that every individual gets access to safe water through the municipal water systems cannot be overemphasized. However the reasons why improving access to safe water and adequate sanitation services in Nigeria remains painfully slow are wide ranging, complex and complicated by corruption that pervades every sector of the economy.
Critically, issues with poor operation and maintenance, inept institutions, insufficient technical capacity and persistent implementation failure are tied into the fact that the financial management structure in the water and sanitation sector is largely described as opaque while uncoordinated water policies facilitate replication of efforts; weakening intersectoral harmonization as every tier of government pursues its own water agenda.
These failures have dramatic consequences for lives, livelihoods and development.
Although relatively new minister of water resources, Sarah Ochekpe, assures of the dawn of a new era with increased transparency and an end to a culture of wasted investments; this news is received with restrained public interest because apart from a history with our leaders that teach rhetoric rarely translates to reality, elements that seem to guarantee failure remains in the system.
As you read this, thousands of Nigerians mostly children lie sick, bodies ravaged by cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery; even as an estimatedNigerian children under the age of 5 not to mention teenagers and adults die annually from these preventable water and sanitation related diseases.
There is almost no state in Nigeria without abandoned water projects or one whose construction has gone on forever, creating a veritable opening for fraud, assuring the continued suffering of many. For example, in Nassarawa state, reports document that the immediate past governor awarded contracts running into billions of naira to either start fresh water projects or rehabilitate existing ones across several localities.
However, in Nassarawa-Eggon site for a N2.
These sorts of scenario play out again and again meanwhile millions of residents continue to face the persistent hard ship water scarcity brings. The challenge in this environment we operate in has to do with judicious utilization of resources.
There is a need to strengthen the role of civil society as a monitoring and independent organization to double check what is set aside for spending within the sector.
So even if the funds are available and the administration and public service willing to spend it, it is not easy to keep running water schemes for a long time if you do not have the proper financial planning capacity. A senior official within the federal ministry of water resources hierarchy informs that nobody really knows how much of budgeted funds truly end up in the system for there is no clear tracking mechanism for budgeted funds or expenditure.
Notably, the bulk of local government revenue is sourced through this means with the local governments having little control over it.
The state governors control the joint account where the funds are kept; releasing them at their own discretion instead of based on the requisite vertical and horizontal criteria that exist.
Independent studies show that the budget process at the local level is lopsided and often not respected, with cases where such processes simply do not exist at all.
Auditing by the state is carried out irregularly, and sanctions for mismanagement are rarely imposed. However, there is no tangible evidence that the state transfers the same percentage to the local governments even as they remain without adequate capacity in financial management and planning.
In the same vein, Ravi Narayanan, Chairman WIN adds that there is currently a general recognition that on water and sanitation issues it is not just a question of investment but more about good governance.
Poor governance is an important factor that should be addressed from now and with top urgency because this is what is happening. It is very important to consider and to highlight that the damage of corruption issue goes well beyond the 40 or 50 percent financial losses on investment.
Corruption is a sort of cancer which eats at the heart of governance. Monopoly situations are often the crucible for these kinds of things because there is no other way in which people can fulfill their basic needs.
As it stands today, Nigeria along with entire sub Saharan region will not meet the MDG targets set for reducing the number of those without access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation by Even as most of the water and sanitation projects provided lack the basic apparatus that would ensure sustainability, so far there is a 2 percent increase in water coverage based on studies.
The consensus is this is not a healthy enough pace particularly in the area of sanitation delivery where Nigeria is moving backwards instead of improving. It is a worrying situation that has to be tackled.
We need a lot more improvement in investment especially in the area of sanitation. Generally investment in water sanitation and hygiene has to be more than doubled, in the area of sanitation it has to even be quadrupled."The technology is very practical and uses icon based instructions.
This makes it possible to vary shot sizes for any of the different cleaning methods including spray cleaning, bucket cleaning or scrubber driers, but it requires minimal user training or.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from schwenkreis.com Despite this, Nigeria has made solid progress in reaching people with water – seven in ten people now have clean water to drink. But with fewer than three in ten people having a decent toilet, the country has a big task ahead of it to install the right sanitation systems.
Because there is a lack of clean water in many rural villages in Africa, diseases transmitted through unclean water are a leading cause of preventable illness and premature deaths, with children being particularly vulnerable.
Shortage Of Clean Water And Air In Nigeria Essay Sample. Introduction Nigeria is a country situated in West Africa in the Nile Delta region.
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