Report types application of qiyas

These four principles require the following mode for the functioning of a suhaba on "decisions". These always concerned legal rulings, state policies, strategies for war, etc. Mustafa al Babi al-Halbisecond edition, II,

Report types application of qiyas

Ahmad Shafaat IJMA' means consensus, that is, acceptance of a matter by a specified group of people. In Islamic jurisprudence fiqh the matter on which ijma' is of Report types application of qiyas is understood in one of the two following ways: Any matter related to Shari'ah 1 Any matter of interest to Muslims 2 The group involved in the consensus is understood in the following ways, in which an exception is made for children and those who suffer from mental disorder: All Muslims of all times 3 All Muslims of a particular time 4 In the following definitions an age after the death of the Prophet is assumed.

All mujtahidin who are just, righteous and who avoid bid'a innovation 5 All mujtahidin who avoid innovation including those who may not be muttaqin righteous and God-fearing 6 Majority of all mujtahidin 7 All companions of the Prophet 9 Mujtahidin of Makka and Madina or Kufa and Basra 10 Mujtahidin of Madina 11 The first four khulafa or the first two khulafa 12 The last three opinions are not strictly speaking definitional, that is, ijma' is not defined as agreement, say, between the first two khulafa but rather that such an agreement realizes ijma'.

Types of ijma' Explicit ijma' 'azima or ijma' qawli. This type of ijma' takes place as follows: A question arises and people express their different views. Then there is discussion on these views and finally a common position is agreed upon.

If an opinion is expressed by some and their contemporaries, after learning about it, have made no comments either in favor or against, then we have what is known as silent ijma'. This situation occurs when a view generally held but it is not known whether or not there are experts who disagree with it.

This is ijma' on a matter in which there never has been any sustained difference ikhtilaf mustaqar and which is established with tawatur continuitythat is, we can show that all generations of Muslims or Muslim mujtahidin agreed on the matter.

Ijma' provides a conclusive proof for a view. The following views exist among jurists: It is not possible for the Muslim Ummah or the jurists to agree on a position without sanad from the Qur'an, Hadith or qiyas.

Qiyas cannot be a basis for ijma'. Those who believe that ijma' is possible with sanad explain this by saying that isnad for these rulings once existed but are now lost. Another issue raised in connection with ijma' is as follows: If in an age jurists held one or the other of two ijma' ala qawlayn or more views, it is permissible to hold a view different from these two or more views.

For example, if a man leaves only a grandfather and a brother as his inheritors, then there are found only two opinions concerning their shares. First, the two will share inheritance equally.

Second, all inheritance will go to the grandfather. Is it possible to have a third opinion? According to al-Amdi the answer is negative for a majority of jurists and positive for some shi'a, some Hanafi jurists and some ahl al-zahir people who reject qiyas. But what if a person refuses to accept that ruling all together?

Will he be committing kufr? Even when scholars consider a form of ijma' conclusive and binding, they do not necessarily regard the rejection of a ruling reached by it as kufr. They are in general far more cautious in declaring refusal to reject the result of ijma' on a matter as kufr than in declaring a particular type of ijma' as conclusive and binding.

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Almost all jurists agree that refusal to accept an ijma' other than an ijma of suhaba or an ijma established with continuity, tawatur, in all the previous generations of Muslims ijma' qat'ilike the Qur'anic verses, is not kufr. In case of ijma' suhaba and ijma' qat'i two cases are distinguished: Ijma' on matters related to the fundamentals of din whose comprehension is needed by all Muslims, e.

Ijma' on matters whose knowledge is expected only from "specialists" khawase. There seems to be a general agreement that refusal to accept ijma' suhaba or ijma qat'i on matters of the first category is kufr but opinions differ as to whether a refusal to accept ijma' suhaba or ijma qat'i on matters of the second category is also kufr.

Therefore, a person does not accept the principle of ijma' as a valid source of rules is not a kafir. Only a person who accepts the principle of ijma' and also recognizes that a certain ruling is based on ijma' and then refuses to accept it can be declared as committing kufr.

There is no agreement among jurists as to which statements in the Qur'an and Hadith, if any, provide justification for the principle of ijma'.

Generally the jurists see a justification for the principle in the Qur'anic verses: But Sadr al-Shari'ah 33 finds nothing in 2: Instead he uses 3: Allama al-Taftazani 34 however, rejects all the arguments by Sadr al-Shari'ah. There are also some ahadith that are used in support of the principle of ijma'.

Al-Ghazali 35 says that of these ahadith the strongest support for the principle of ijma' is provided by: But Shah Wali Allah 36 says that this hadith "does not mean that ijma' is hujja proof.

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And we even have reputed jurists like Imam al-Harmayn al-Juwayni who "recognized that in the received teachings there is no proof that ijma' has binding authority wajib al-ittiba' and the final resort is to "reason" and that "the arguments on the basis of reason are very weak.In its eighth year, the National Center for Measurement in Higher Education (Qiyas) It is based on six personality types.

These types are the realistic, social, artistic, investigative, enterprising and conventional types. § A report on the results of Teacher Competency Tests in the United Arab Emirates. Examples given were of narcotics/new types of drugs, the permissibility of wearing nail varnish when making wudu’, and the ruling on different types of transactions during Friday prayers.

It was important to give an example as to the usage of qiyas rather than an explanation of qiyas. The different types of qiyas are explained in this report and how it is categorized.

The most important feature in an investigated concept is its proof or in this case Hujiyyah and this is covered in this report .

Report types application of qiyas

The majority of ulema have defined qiyas as the application to a new case (far), on which the law is silent, of the ruling (hukm) of an original case (asl) because of . Report Types Application Of Qiyas Essay  Types of qiyas a) 'Analogy of the Superior' (qiyas al-awla) The effective cause in this qiyas is more evident in the new case than the original case, which is why it is called qiyas al-awla.

Principles of Islamic jurisprudence otherwise known as Uṣūl al-fiqh other practices such as the Fatwas of the first generation of Muslims and the application of pure reason are not universally accepted.

whether report of a single transmitter, appearances, appearances of the Quran, Sunna, consensus, intellect, and the like are.

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