It has only been since the s that this area has attracted more interest among EFL teachers.
These five concepts are part of a poststructural futures toolbox. There is a strong link, of course, to other futures methods. Emerging issues analysis,  for example, at one level predicts issues outside of conventional knowledge categories but it does so by disturbing conventional categories, by making them problematic; it reorders knowledge.
For example, the notion of the "rights of robots" forces us to rethink rights, seeing them not as universal but as historical and political, as hard fought political and conceptual battles.
It also forces us to rethink intelligence and sentience - posing the question what is life? Thus, a futures method such as emerging issues analysis, conventionally used to identify trends and problems in their emergent phase, should not merely be seen as a predictive method; it can also be a critical one.
A civilizational perspective From Critical metaphor analysis approach civilizational perspective, it is crucial to explore the guiding metaphors and myths we use to envision the future. This perspective takes a step back from the actual future to the deeper assumptions about the future being discussed, specifically the "non-rational.
Believing the future is like a roll of dice is quite different from the Arab saying of the future: For the Confucian, choice and opportunity exist in the context of family and ancestors and not merely as individual decisions.
In workshops on the future outside of the West, conventional metaphors such as a fork in the road, the future as seen through the rearview mirror, or travelling down a rocky stream, rarely make sense. Others from Asia and the Pacific see the future as a tree organic with roots and with many choicesas a finely weaved carpet Critical metaphor analysis approach God as the weaveras a coconut hard on the outside, soft on the inside or as being in a car with a blindfolded driver loss of control.
It takes as its starting point the assumption that there are different levels of reality and ways of knowing. Individuals, organizations and civilizations see the world from different vantage points - horizontal and vertical. Causal layered analysis Causal layered analysis is based on the assumption that the way in which one frames a problem changes the policy solution and the actors responsible for creating transformation.
Using the works of Rick Slaughter, P. Sarkar and Oswald Spengler,  I argue that futures studies should be seen as layered, as deep and shallow. Its textured richness cannot be reduced to empirical trends. Events, issues and trends are not connected and appear discontinuous.
The result is often either a feeling of helplessness what can I do? This is the conventional level of futures research which can readily create a politics of fear.
This is the futurist as fearmonger who warns: However by believing in the prophecy and acting appropriately, the end can be averted.
It is believed, rarely questioned. The second level is concerned with social causes, including economic, cultural, political and historical factors rising birthrates, lack of family planning, eg. Interpretation is given to quantitative data. This type of analysis is usually articulated by policy institutes and published as editorial pieces in newspapers or in not-quite academic journals.
This level excels at technical explanations as well as academic analysis. The role of the state and other actors and interests is often explored at this level. The data is often questioned, however, the language of questioning does not contest the paradigm in which the issue is framed.
It remains obedient to it. The task is to find deeper social, linguistic, cultural structures that are actor-invariant not dependent on who are the actors. Discerning deeper assumptions behind the issue is crucial here as are efforts to revision the problem.
Critical incident technique is a method of gathering facts (incidents) from domain experts or less experienced users of the existing system to gain knowledge of how to improve the performance of the individuals involved. Literary Terms; Poetry Lesson. Genre is an important word in the English class. We teach different genres of literature such as poetry, short stories, myths, plays, non-fiction, novels, mysteries, and so on. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction, 2nd Edition [Zoltan Kovecses] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Combining up-to-date scholarship with clear and accessible language and helpful exercises, Metaphor: A Practical Introduction is an invaluable resource for all readers interested in metaphor. This second edition includes two new chapters--on 'metaphors in discourse' and.
At this stage, one can explore how different discourses the economic, the religious, the cultural, for example do more than cause or mediate the issue but constitute it, how the discourse we use to understand is complicit in our framing of the issue.
Based on the varied discourses, discrete alternative scenarios can be derived here. For example, a scenario of the future of population based on religious perspectives of population "go forth and multiply versus cultural scenario focused on how women's groups imagine construct birthing and childraising as well as their roles in patriarchy and the world division of labor.
|Textual criticism - Wikipedia||Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis.|
|Have your say||Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation.|
|Cognitive Task Analysis | Usability Body of Knowledge||Posttest-Only Analysis To analyze the two-group posttest-only randomized experimental design we need an analysis that meets the following requirements:|
These scenarios add a horizontal dimension to our layered analysis. The foundations for how the litany has been presented and the variables used to understand the litany are questioned at this level. The fourth layer of analysis is at the level of metaphor or myth.
These are the deep stories, the collective archetypes, the unconscious, of often emotive, dimensions of the problem or the paradox seeing population as non-statistical, as community, or seeing people as creative resources, eg. The language used is less specific, more concerned with evoking visual images, with touching the heart instead of reading the head.
Causal layered analysis asks us to go beyond conventional framing of issues. For instance, normal academic analysis tends to stay in the second layer with occasional forays into the third, seldom privileging the fourth layer myth and metaphor.
CLA however, does not privilege a particular level. Moving up and down layers we can integrate analysis and synthesis, and horizontally we can integrate discourses, ways of knowing and worldviews, thereby increasing the richness of the analysis.'Critical Metaphor Analysis' is then developed in a series of corpus-based studies in which Corpus Approaches to Critical Metaphor Analysis | Jonathan Charteris-Black | Palgrave Macmillan Loading.
Abstract: In this interview, Ruth WODAK discusses the beginnings of her career, and what propelled her into critical discourse analysis.
She analyses what makes critical discourse analysis "critical", distinguishes criticalness from dogmatism, but expounds upon the relationship between critique and.
From Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, Winter, Vol. XVI, No. 2. by Linda Elder. Emotional intelligence is a topic that is attracting a considerable amount of popular attention.
Some of the discussion is, in my view, superficial and misleading. Metaphor in literature and life: current theories. Metaphors are not simply literary devices, but something active in understanding, perhaps even the very basis of language. Metaphoric criticism is one school of rhetorical analysis used in English and speech communication studies.
Scholars employing metaphoric criticism analyze texts by locating metaphors within texts and evaluating those metaphors in an effort to better understand ways in .
Metaphor is closely related to conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff ; Lakoff and Johnson ) but also goes beyond it. Critical Metaphor Analysis Approach addresses the rhetorical and ideological role of metaphor in discourse and analyses it in authentic data.