A one-time theology student in training to become a minister of religion, albeit one with a passionate interest in natural history field studies, Darwin was informally recruited as a geological advisor to accompany british naval Captain Fitzroy on a surveying voyage to South America and the Pacific Ocean. This voyage, on board HMS Beagle, lasted some five years from to and helped to transform the would-be country parson into a theologically skeptical man of science.
Charles Darwin English scientist. Generally regarded as the most prominent of the nineteenth-century evolutionary theorists, Charles Darwin is primarily known for his On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, the publication of which in ushered in a new era of naturalistic thinking that was to influence not only the field of biological science, but also the disciplines of art, literature, philosophy, and theology.
In the work Darwin identified genetic mutation and natural selection as the mechanisms that controlled the development of species.
His theory introduced the concept of ever-present competitive struggle in nature, thereby decentering the commonly held Romantic view of nature as a benign, even benevolent force, and pushed the role of God to the margins of human existence on earth.
Although one of many contributors to the field of evolutionary biology, Darwin is commonly associated with the popular acceptance of evolutionary theory, and his Origin is believed to be the impetus for an intellectual revolution as philosophers, social scientists, and writers began to explore the far-reaching implications of his naturalistic theory, which posed a serious challenge to the orthodoxy of Victorian religion, science, and philosophy.
His grandfather was the noted physician, botanist, and poet, Erasmus Darwin, who had been a popularizer of evolutionary biology in the late eighteenth century.
The journey lasted five years, taking Darwin to the Andes, as well as to Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of the continent, and to the Galapagos archipelago.
By this time, and largely in response to geological and biological evidence he had accumulated in South America, Darwin was formulating his theory of natural selection, although it was not to appear in print untilwith the publication of On the Origin of Species. The work stirred instant controversy and made Darwin one of the most recognizable figures in Victorian England.
Over the years, in response to strident criticism, Darwin prepared five revised editions of the book, and meanwhile published several monographs on botany and zoology. Inhis Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, another work tied to his theory of evolutionary biology appeared.
Descent likewise caused an uproar among critics, but Darwin, highly reserved for most of his life, responded in part by resuming his studies of plants and animals outside a purely evolutionary context.
His last book published during his lifetime, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habitsappeared in the year before his death at the age of seventy-three. Major Works Darwin wrote several books on a range of scientific topics, including botany, zoology, and geology.
Among his earliest works, the Journal of Researches is as much a travelogue as a book on science, and captures his responses to the beauty of the Brazilian rainforest and cultural observations of the natives at Tierra del Fuego.
In the Origin Darwin argued that environmental factors acting upon random genetic mutations produce changes in species by allowing those individuals better adapted for survival in a given environment to thrive and reproduce in greater numbers than other members of the same species.
This process he termed "descent with modification," which, he maintained, produced large-scale changes in species only over vast periods of time. The revolutionary implications of the theory were further elucidated in Descent, wherein Darwin applied the principles of evolution specifically to human beings and thereby explicitly contradicted widely-held religious explanations of human origins by observing that they shared a common origin with apes and monkeys, and ultimately with even the simplest forms of life.
Critical Reception By introducing the element of chance into his model of evolution, and thereby supplanting divine intervention as the primary force in the creation of life, Darwin had posed a direct challenge to the prevailing religious and moral constructs of his time and provoked a furious response from many quarters.
Darwin engaged these oppositions by refining his theory over time, until it gradually gained scientific and popular acceptance.Essays and criticism on Charles Darwin - Critical Essays.
David Attenborough: Charles Darwin and the Tree of Life As Australian TV Channel 1 re-ran Sir David Attenborough’s program Darwin and the Tree of Life on 3 May , we re-present our response, originally published 15 October BeLawyer | Best WordPress theme for lawyers.
Charles Darwin and the Tree of Life. After watching the video: Charles Darwin and the Tree of Life, answer the following questions. Darwin's Tree of Life sketch of (Some explanatory notes are presented further down this page with the aim of providing for an easier understanding of Darwin's concepts and for a fuller explanation of the terminolgy used.).
The origins of species Part 2 of two parts The "Tree of Life" by Charles Darwin, and by others up to the present time.. This topic is continues from the previous essay..
1 Charles Darwin drew this "tree of life" in his personal notebook with the caption: "I think case must be that one generation should have as many living as now. Essay on Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Words | 3 Pages Charles Darwin's theory of evolution centres on the idea that species compete to survive, and favorable characteristics are passed on from one generation to the next.