Felipe Calderon Felipe Calderon, from the governing, conservative National Action Party, was declared winner of the bitterly-fought July presidential election with a lead of less than a percentage point over his left-wing rival, Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador. One of the defining features of his presidency has been his war on drugs.
The Mayas excelled at pottery, hieroglyph writing, calendar-making and mathematics, and left an astonishing amount of great architecture; the ruins can still be seen today.
The rise of the Toltecs, who used their powerful armies to subjugate neighboring societies, is said to have marked the beginning of militarism in Mesoamerican society. Early forms of currency include cacao beans and lengths of woven cloth.
The Aztec civilization is also highly developed socially, intellectually and artistically.
Their language, Nahuatl, is the dominant language in central Mexico by mids, although numerous other languages are spoken. Distinctive examples of the Aztec artistic style include exquisitely feathered tapestries, headdresses and other attire; finely worked ceramics; gold, silver and copperware; and precious stones, particularly jade and turquoise.
Members of the local native population clash with the Spanish explorers, killing some 50 of them and capturing several more. His victory marks the fall of the once-mighty Aztec empire. Hidalgo, Santa Anna and War Napoleon Bonaparte occupies Spain, deposes the monarchy, and installs his brother, Joseph, as head of state.
The ensuing Peninsular War between Spain backed by Britain and France will lead almost directly to the Mexican war for independence, as the colonial government in New Spain falls into disarray and its opponents begin to gain momentum.
September 16, In the midst of factional struggles within the colonial government, Father Manuel Hidalgoa priest in the small village of Dolores, issues his famous call for Mexican independence.
El grito de Dolores set off a flurry of revolutionary action by thousands of natives and mestizos, who banded together to capture Guanajuato and other major cities west of Mexico City. Despite its initial success, the Hidalgo rebellion loses steam and is defeated quickly, and the priest is captured and killed at Chihuahua in On their behalf, Iturbide meets with Guerrero and issues the Plan of Iguala, by which Mexico would become an independent country ruled as a limited monarchy, with the Roman Catholic Church as the official state church and equal rights and upper-class status for the Spanish and mestizo populations, as opposed to the majority of the population, which was of Native American or African descent, or mulato mixed.
His strong Centralist policies encourage the increasing ire of residents of Texasthen still part of Mexico, who declare their independence in Humbled, he is forced to resign power by May 12, As a result of the continuing dispute over Texas, frictions between the U.
Despite a series of U. Other reforms focus on curtailing the power and wealth of the Catholic Church. Conservative groups bitterly oppose the new constitution, and in a three-year-long civil war begins that will devastate an already weakened Mexico.
Bymost of the largest businesses in Mexico are owned by foreign nationals, mostly American or British. Popular leaders like Emiliano Zapata in southern Mexico and Pancho Villa in the north emerge as the champions of the peasant and working class, refusing to submit to presidential authority. Carranza takes power, and Zapata and Villa continue waging war against him.
Various invasions by the United States—nervous about their unruly neighbor—further complicates matters, as Carranza struggles to hold power.
Despite the warring factions in Mexico, Carranza is able to oversee the creation of a new liberal Mexican constitution in In his efforts to maintain power, however, Carranza grows increasingly reactionary, ordering the ambush and murder of Zapata in By this time, nearlyMexicans have emigrated to the United States sinceboth to escape the violence and to find greater opportunities for work.
He revives the revolutionary-era social revolution and carries out an extensive series of agrarian reforms, distributing nearly twice as much land to peasants as had all of his predecessors combined.
He remains an influential figure in government throughout the next three decades. InMexico agrees to pay U. The following year, Mexico joins the newly created United Nations. In the post-World War II years, Mexico undergoes great industrial and economic growth, even as the gap continues to grow between the richest and poorest segments of the population.
The ruling government party, founded inis renamed the Partido Revolucionario Institucional PRIand will continue its dominance for the next 50 years. On October 2, ten days before the Games were to open, Mexican security forces and military troops surround a demonstration at the historic Tlatelolco Plaza and open fire.
Though the resulting death and injury toll is concealed by the Mexican government and their allies in Washingtonat least people are killed and many others wounded. The Games go ahead as planned.Ruins of the Maya; Index directory for Quintana Roo and Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico's famed archaeological zones.
Insider information on what to see and where to stay. schwenkreis.com Overview of the Mexican Legal System. Introduction Contrary to the beliefs widely held in the U.S. regarding the nature and function of Mexico's legal system, Mexico does, in fact, enjoy a highly evolved and organized legal system which with few exceptions is functional.
Mexico - Expansion of Spanish rule: After taking possession of the Aztec empire, the Spaniards quickly subjugated most of the other indigenous tribes in southern Mexico, and by Spanish rule had been extended as far south as Guatemala and Honduras.
The only area in southern Mexico of effective indigenous resistance was Yucatán, inhabited by Maya societies. Indian Tribes and Languages of Mexico This is an index to the Native American language and cultural information on our website pertaining to Mexican tribes.
Palenque (Spanish pronunciation: ; Yucatec Maya: Bàakʼ /ɓàːkʼ/), also anciently known as Lakamha (literally: "Big Water"), was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date from ca.
BC to ca. AD  After its decline, it was absorbed into the jungle of cedar, mahogany, and sapodilla trees, but has since been.
Ancient Pottery (from 18, BCE): History, Production of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Iron Age Pots From China, Japan, Mesopotamia and Greece.