An analysis of the severe mood fluctuations of bipolar

Diabetes is a disease in which blood sugar levels are above normal. High blood sugar is a major cause of coronary heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, amputation, and blindness. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes in the United States.

An analysis of the severe mood fluctuations of bipolar

Overview[ edit ] Executive functioning is a theoretical construct representing a domain of cognitive processes that regulate, control, and manage other cognitive processes.

Executive functioning is not a unitary concept; it is a broad description of the set of processes involved in certain areas of cognitive and behavioural control. Executive dysfunction does occur to a minor degree in all individuals on both short-term and long-term scales.

In non-clinical populations, the activation of executive processes appears to inhibit further activation of the same processes, suggesting a mechanism for normal fluctuations in executive control. Executive dysfunction, particularly in working memory capacity, may also lead to varying degrees of emotional dysregulation, which can manifest as chronic depressionanxietyor hyperemotionality.

Learning and development of long-term memory play a role in the severity of executive dysfunction through dynamic interaction with neurological characteristics. Studies in cognitive neuroscience suggest that executive functions are widely distributed throughout the brain, though a few areas have been isolated as primary contributors.

Executive dysfunction is studied extensively in clinical neuropsychology as well, allowing correlations to be drawn between such dysexecutive symptoms and their neurological correlates.

In the case of acquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases there is a clear neurological etiology producing dysexecutive symptoms. Conversely, syndromes and disorders are defined and diagnosed based on their symptomatology rather than etiology.

A common assumption is that disrupted executive control processes are associated with pathology in prefrontal brain regions. According to Friedman et al. Although a trained non-professional working outside of an institutionalized setting can legally and competently perform many of these measures, a trained professional administering the test in a standardized setting will yield the most accurate results.

An analysis of the severe mood fluctuations of bipolar

It is relatively easy to train non-professional staff to administer a CDT. After the task is complete, the test administrator draws a clock with the hands set at the same specific time.

Then the patient is asked to copy the image. Stroop task[ edit ] The cognitive mechanism involved in the Stroop task is referred to as directed attention.

An analysis of the severe mood fluctuations of bipolar

The Stroop task requires the participant to engage in and allows assessment of processes such as attention management, speed and accuracy of reading words and colours and of inhibition of competing stimuli. For example, the word "red" is written in a blue font. In the aforementioned example, this would require the participant to say "blue" when presented with the stimulus.

Although the majority of people will show some slowing when given incompatible text versus font colour, this is more severe in individuals with deficits in inhibition. The Stroop task takes advantage of the fact that most humans are so proficient at reading colour words that it is extremely difficult to ignore this information, and instead acknowledge, recognize and say the colour the word is printed in.

The participants are then given a pile of additional cards and are asked to match each one to one of the previous cards. Typically, children between ages 9 and 11 are able to show the cognitive flexibility that is needed for this test.

Part B differs from Part A specifically in that it assesses more complex factors of motor control and perception.

The task is also timed as a means of assessing speed of processing. Clinical presentation of severe executive dysfunction that is unrelated a specific disease or disorder is classified as a dysexecutive syndromeand often appears following damage to the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex.

It has been assessed and researched extensively in relation to cognitive developmental disorders, psychotic disordersaffective disordersand conduct disordersas well as neurodegenerative diseases and acquired brain injury ABI.

Environmental dependency syndrome is a dysexecutive syndrome marked by significant behavioural dependence on environmental cues and is marked by excessive imitation and utilization behaviour. Observed damage to explicit, consciously accessed, memory is generally attributed to the fragmented thoughts that characterize the disorder.

However, implicit memory is generally preserved in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate spared performance on measures of visual and verbal attention and concentration, as well as on immediate digit span recall, suggesting that observed deficits cannot be attributed to deficits in attention or short-term memory.

Working memory and multi-tasking impairments typically characterize the disorder. However, performance on tasks associated with the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad are typically less affected.

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Individuals with ADHD often experience problems with organization, discipline, and setting priorities, and these difficulties often persist from childhood through adulthood.

Although ADHD has typically been conceptualized in a categorical diagnostic paradigm, it has also been proposed that this disorder should be considered within a more dimensional behavioural model that links executive functions to observed deficits.

Autism spectrum disorder[ edit ] Autism is diagnosed based on the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activities and interests. It is a disorder that is defined according to behaviour as no specific biological markers are known.

Individuals with autism commonly show impairment in three main areas of executive functioning: Fluency refers to the ability to generate novel ideas and responses.

Although adult populations are largely underrepresented in this area of research, findings have suggested that children with autism generate fewer novel words and ideas and produce less complex responses than matched controls. Planning refers to a complex, dynamic process, wherein a sequence of planned actions must be developed, monitored, re-evaluated and updated.

Persons with autism demonstrate impairment on tasks requiring planning abilities relative to typically functioning controls, with this impairment maintained over time.- Bipolar Disorder The severe mood fluctuations of bipolar or manic-depressive disorders have been around since the century and affect little more than 2% of the population in both sexes, all races, and all parts of the world (Harmon 3).

Medscape - Depression, OCD, an analysis of the severe mood fluctuations of bipolar panic disorder, PTSD, PMDD-specific dosing for Zoloft (sertraline), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions. Brief Report. Essay Bipolar Disorder. Bipolar disorder is a serious condition that involves severe abnormalities in mood.

The person experiences alternating bouts of mania or hypomania and depression, which may involve psychosis. Borderline personality disorder an analysis of a valediction in forbidding is a severe, an analysis of the severe mood fluctuations of bipolar complex psychiatric a biography of stephen crane an american poet disorder characterized by long-standing patterns of disproportionately intense emotions, impulsive.

The birth of a child can be a joyous and exciting time, but following childbirth, some women may experience postpartum disorders that can adversely affect a woman’s mental health. Mothers commonly experience what is called “the baby blues,” mood swings that are the result of high hormonal.

severe mood fluctuations of bipolar or manic-depressive disorders have been around since the century and affect little more than 2% of the population in .

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