An analysis of mitochondria and chloroplast

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An analysis of mitochondria and chloroplast

INTRODUCTION

Received Apr 1; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract A variety of melons are cultivated worldwide, and their specific biological properties make them an attractive model for molecular studies.

This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs from the mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear genomes of seven melon accessions Cucumis melo L. The data showed that there were a total of mitochondrial SNPs — in eachwhile there were 0—60 chloroplast SNPs among these seven melon cultivars, compared to the reference genome.

SNPs of the nuclear genome were better than the mitochondrial and chloroplast SNPs in the identification of melon features. The data demonstrated the usefulness of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear SNPs in identification of phylogenetic associations among these seven melon cultivars.

Melon first originated in Africa and Southwest Asia Vaughan and Geissler and then spread worldwide. Inthe global melon production was more than 29 million tons http: Melon is an attractive model for molecular studies owing to its specific biological properties Garcia-Mas et al.

The economic importance and research value of melons would promote the completion of the genome sequence of its mitochondria, chloroplast, and nucleus Garcia-Mas et al.

Mitochondrial transcripts usually harbor multiple distinct processed 5′-ends. In our analysis, only a minority of mitochondrial 5′-ends overlapped with cosRNAs (Table 1, bottom)—a striking contrast to the overlap we observed at 3′-ends. Genomics of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria This illustration is a collage of a photograph of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and the graphic maps of its plastid (top/front) and mitochondrial (bottom/back) genomes. The proteolytic machinery of chloroplasts and mitochondria is essential for controlling the quality and turnover of these organelles' proteins and, thus, is important for their proper function.

Both chloroplast and nuclear genomes are often used for molecular phylogenies to identify the diversification and evolutionary history of cultivated melons Chung et al. However, the mitochondrial genome has been underutilized as a source of phylogenetic data on melons, which may be attributed to a generally low rate of nucleotide substitution due to the impact of RNA editing Govindarajulu et al.

Accumulative evidence supports the analysis of the mitochondrial genome for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the fact that the mitochondrial genome is paternally inherited and transmitted through pollen, like other species of Cucumis HaveyHavey et al. The mitochondrial genome of melon contains more than 2, kb of nucleotides, the largest one among the plants of Cucurbitaceae family.

In contrast, the chloroplast is maternally inherited, although its genome contains onlybp of nuclear acids. A comprehensive analysis of their genomes could provide a complementary rather than redundant insight into the reticulate evolutionary history of melons.

Associated Data

During the past decades, there have been numerous attempts to identify and evaluate the chloroplast and nuclear genomes as molecular markers to characterize melon biodiversity and to explain phylogenetic relationships using techniques such as random-amplified polymorphic DNA RAPD Nakata et al. Recently, various studies utilized nearly complete chloroplast and nuclear genome approach to identify molecular biomarkers for phylogenetic analysis Govindarajulu et al.

Assessment of genomic SNP is more popular and frequently used among molecular markers for genomic studies Govindarajulu et al. In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear genomes of seven melon cultivars from different countries and identified all SNPs in order to investigate their genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

This study expects to evaluate the effect of DNA transfer among these three genomes on organellar SNP analysis and to investigate whether genetic polymorphism exits in the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of melon cultivars.

Fluid Transport-Organic Solute Transport

In addition, the study aims to investigate whether organellar SNPs are useful to separate melon cultivars and whether there is a difference in the mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear genomes as molecular biomarkers to identify the phylogenetic relationships.

Overall, we expected to utilize these SNPs to identify their organellar phylogenies and to construct the nuclear phylogeny using these SNP markers from the nuclear genome.

Some of these accessions were parental lines for several melon mapping populations, which have been extensively used for constructing genetic maps and mapping agronomical important traits.

The genotype of three published melon reference genomes Garcia-Mas et al.In this study, we carried out phylogenomic analysis to distinguish their evolutionary lineages by using red algal RNA-seq datasets of the 1 Plants (1KP) Project and publicly available complete genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts of Rhodophyta.

Abstract. The chloroplast and mitochondrion of red algae (Phylum Rhodophyta) may have originated from different endosymbiosis. In this study, we carried out phylogenomic analysis to distinguish their evolutionary lineages by using red algal RNA-seq datasets of the 1 Plants (1KP) Project and publicly available complete genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts of Rhodophyta.

An analysis of mitochondria and chloroplast

Fluid transport 2. TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC SOLUTES. Young and growing structures of the plant body like shoot apex, root apex, leaf primordial, floral buds, axially buds, etc.

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require vitamin, hormones and adequate energy source for their active metabolism and sustained growth. Genomics of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria This illustration is a collage of a photograph of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and the graphic maps of its plastid (top/front) and mitochondrial (bottom/back) genomes.

Thanks to Shahzeb for contributing the notes! 1. Characteristics of living things Biology is the study of living organisms. For something to be alive it needs to perform all seven functions of living things: Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion, Nutrition.

Movement.

A look at cichlid fish in Lake Victoria. This is the first in what I hope to be a series of postings. In the series I hope to accomplish two things, establish that evolution is an active branch of mainstream science and that there is indeed an overwhelming amount of evidence in favor of the idea of evolution.

Chloroplast - Wikipedia