A discussion on prenatal diagnostic of gender

Prefertilization Sex selection by sperm sorting or flow cytometry enables the separation of X- from Y-chromosome-bearing sperm due to slight differences in weight whereby X and Y-bearing sperm have a DNA difference in content of approximately 2. The first child conceived from sorted human sperm bearing the X chromosome was born in to a family carrying the X-linked disease hydrocephalus. One concern is that such techniques may reinforce gender discrimination by either allowing male offspring to be produced as first children or by encouraging parents to pay greater attention to gender itself.

A discussion on prenatal diagnostic of gender

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Pregnant women have been curious about the sex of their unborn child. The advent of ultrasound, its application into medicine, and the revolutionary changes in its resolution and function has led to the ability to assign a sex to these unborn children, thereby allaying the anxiety of these women but with consequent emergent ethical, moral, psycho-social, and medico-legal issues.

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The objectives were to determine the accuracy of sonographic prenatal sex determination, perform binary classification test, and the impact it has, including mis-diagnosis.

A prospective prenatal sonographic sex determination study on consecutive consenting pregnant women aged years in a private hospital in Benin between August and October Questionnaires were administered to these women before and after the scan and the women were told the sex of the fetuses and their feelings on the determined sex recorded.

The sex at birth was confirmed and compared to the scan determined gender by their case note and telephone. Relevant discussions during the scan and later on were recorded on the questionnaires.

A discussion on prenatal diagnostic of gender

The statistical package used was SPSS version 17 and binary classification tests were performed. Two males were misdiagnosed as females. Most of the women were happy even when the sex differed from that which they desired.

Prenatal sonographic sex determination has a high sensitivity index. Consequently we advocate its use prior to more invasive sex tests. Indication for prenatal sex determination can be medical or nonmedical.

The medical indication for its use include in families at risk of x-linked disorders, testicular feminization syndrome, pseudo-hermaphroditism, genital anomalies, ambiguous genitalia, and determination of zygosity in multiple pregnancy. In the early publications on sonographic prenatal gender assignment male sex was identified by the presence of the penis and scrotum while females were by the absence of both scrotum and penis.

Visualization of the internal pelvic structures of the fetus such as the uterus and ovaries also assists in assigning appropriate sex to the fetus. Unfortunately first trimester ultrasound sex determination has significant false negative rate. Improvement in the sensitivity value increases with high proficiency and experience as well as high-quality machine.

Incorrectly determined sex can have some psychological effects on the family. Thus we undertook this study to determine the prenatal sonographic accuracy and sensitivity pattern in our environment. Approval for the study was sought and granted from the radiology department and the management which acts as the ethical board of the private institution where the study was conducted.

In the study consecutive consenting pregnant women with pregnancies in the second or third trimester that were referred for obstetric ultrasound had the procedure explained to them and questionnaires administered after signing the informed consent section.

Sonographic prenatal sex determination was conducted in these consenting women and the determined sex communicated to them. They were then asked how they felt about the determined sex and their feelings recorded.

Data such as phone numbers, gestational age at scan time, estimated date of delivery, case note number, and other relevant data were entered into the questionnaires. Their case notes were retrieved about 3 weeks after the expected date of delivery and the sex of the baby at birth entered into their questionnaires.

The patients were also contacted by telephone and the sex at birth confirmed with relevant comments entered into the questionnaires. The sex at birth was then compared with the prenatal sonographic determined sex. The scan was performed by one of the researchers.

Identification of the vulva, clitoris, and labia was used to assign female sex to the fetus [ Figure 1 ]. For male fetuses visualization of the scrotum, testicles, and penile shaft was utilized [ Figure 2 ]. After the scan the women were asked how they felt after knowing the fetal sex.

Their responses were then entered into the questionnaires. Relevant oral communications were also recorded in the questionnaires as other findings.Gender identity refers to a person’s internal sense of being male, female or something else; gender expression refers to the way a person communicates gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, hairstyles, voice or body characteristics.

Prenatal sex discernment is the prenatal testing for discerning the sex of a fetus before birth. Contents. Methods.


Prenatal sex discernment can be performed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis before . Discussion. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal gender by ultrasound generally has a high rate of accuracy and is a well-established part of routine ultrasonography6. However, when fetal genitalia appear malformed or ambiguous, or gender assigned by ultrasound does not match gender by karyotype, a plethora of syndromes must be considered and the limitations of ultrasound imaging in observing the external .

The objectives were to study the knowledge, attitude and the practice of pregnant women on gender preference, prenatal sex determination and female schwenkreis.coms: It was a hospital based cross.

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Notes: “Ultrasound next year” is an indicator for whether the county gets ultrasound next year to test for. pre-trends. Individual controls include mother's ethnicity, education, maternal age at conception and its. squared term, gestation length and indicators for the timing of initial prenatal care visits.

Discussion. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal gender by ultrasound generally has a high rate of accuracy and is a well‐established part of routine ultrasonography 6.

However, when fetal genitalia appear malformed or ambiguous, or gender assigned by ultrasound does not match gender by karyotype, a plethora of syndromes must be considered and the.

WHO | Gender and Genetics